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  1. g-lymphatic system

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    Introduction

    There is increasing insight into the role of the production and absorption of CSF and interstitial fluids into the lymphatic system.

    This in part attributed to the developmental understanding of the g-lymphatic system. More interesting from an osteopaths perspective is the interplay of this system with other physiological systems and biomechanics.

    Traditionally the cranium has been viewed as a rigid box, unyielding, and enclosing the brain and all its fluids. When studied in relation to the body’s physiology, the movement of these fluids is at least partially dependent upon the systemic functioning of the body. 

    This is true of fluid movement all over the body. However from a mechanical perspective the fluids in the head and brain are placed under unique circumstances as they are encased in the relatively unyielding cranium. Because the casing of the head doesn’t move much if a lot of fluid was to flow into and out of the head in an uncoordinated manner intracranial pressure would dangerously rise and drop. If the skull lacked any compliance to accommodate these fluctuations in pressure from the ebb and flow of fluid there could be the potential of physiological discord.

    Brief introduction to the g-lymphatic system 

    The g-lymphatic system is discussed in more detail under 'g-lymphatic system'. This is a brief introduction overviewing the concepts of this system. Essentially the g-lymphatic system delivers CSF into the brain where it mixes with the interstitial fluid (ISF) and then this CSF-ISF mix returns to and gets drained away into the lymphatic system.

    • CSF gets pumped along arterial perivascular pathways into the brain parenchyma.
    • This creates a mix of ISF-CSF in the brain parenchyma that gets drained from the brain along venous perivascular pathways.
    • The ISF-CSF mix then gets emptied into the subarachnoid space and from here it gets drains into the lymphatic vessels of (i) perineural spaces of the cranial nerves and (ii) the lymphatics of the dural venous sinuses (superior sagittal sinus, transverse sinus & sigmoid sinus), diploic veins (Tsutsumi et al 2014) and middle meningeal artery.
    • These lymphatic vessels inturn drain into the deep cervical lymphatic vessels and nodes.

    Production and drainage of the CSF - EXCLUDING the g-lymphatic system

    Production of CSF

    Traditionally the CSF is thought to be solely produced from the choroid plexus in the ventricles of the brain.

    Miyajima and Arai (2015) reviewed the literature on CSF being produced by the capillaries in the CNS. It seems to be a concept that has kept reoccurring over the last 100 years and has been widely reported in other mammals. Bulat & Klarica (2011) attributed the mechanism of the capillaries in producing CSF to the filtering out of water across the walls of arterial capillaries. This sieves out the plasma osmolytes. Whilst this is typically a mechanism of producing ISF Yiming et al (2017) found 20% of all CSF originates from the brain's ISF.

    The relationship of the ISF and CSF is discussed further in the g-lymphatic system.

    Movement of CSF from the ventricles --> subarachnoid spaces

    The CSF moves through the ventricles ending in the fourth ventricle. At the fourth ventricle the CSF passes through three small foramina into the subarachnoid spaces. These foramina are the two lateral apertures (of Luschka) and one median aperture (of Magendie). The subarachnoid space is formed between the outer arachnoid mater and inner pia mater.

    Movement of CSF from the subarachnoid spaces --> veins & lymphatics

    The CSF moves through the subarachnoid spaces accumulating in the subarachnoid cisterns. These cisterns are expansions of the subarachnoid space where the arachnoid mater and pia mater are not in close approximation. These cisterns are all interconnected and transmit cranial nerves and intracranial vessels.

    Movement of CSF from the subarachnoid spaces --> dural venous sinus

    Projections from the arachnoid mater, the arachnoid villi, protrude into the dura mater and dural venous sinuses (as well as the diploic veins, Tsutsumi et al 2014) allowing absorbtion of the CSF into the venous sinuses (superior sagittal sinus, transverse sinus & sigmoid sinus) and possibly their lymphatic vessels (refer subarachnoid space --> lymphatics).

    Movement of CSF from the subarachnoid spaces --> lymphatics

    1. Lymphatics in the perineural space

    As the cranial nerves cross the subarachnoid space the lymphatics in the perineural spaces drain the CSF into the nasal mucosa and deep lymph nodes in the neck.

    2. Dural lymphatics (refer movement of the CSF from the subarachnoid spaces --> dural venous sinuses)

    The arachnoid villi projects into the dura mater and the dural venous sinuses as well as the diploic veins. This not only allows absorbtion of the CSF into the venous sinuses (superior sagittal sinus, transverse sinus & sigmoid sinus) but also possibly their lymphatic vessels (Simon & Iliff 2016).

    The lymphatic system in absorbing CSF

    The main drainage route of CSF is into the lymphatic circulation. Some CSF can be drained into the Arachnoid Villi and granulations of the walls of the venous sinus to the blood as a secondary pathway but only if there is an increased CSF hydrostatic pressure (Miyajima and Arai 2015). These authors concluded this as the arachnoid villi do not exist prenatally in humans but occur postpartum, increasing in number with age. In some mammals it is estimated that at least 50% of CSF drains into the lymphatics but the proportion in humans is still unknown. These lymphatic pathways include:

    1. Nasal lymphatics: via the cribriform plate of the ethmoid, channels connect the subarachnoid space with lymphatic vessels in the nasal mucosa (Engelhardt 2016). Engelhardt et al (2016) found in the mouse lymphatic drainage along the sagittal sinus continued through the cribiform plate into the nasal mucosa. In human studies Visanji et al (2017) found dural lymphatics in the sagittal sinus.

    2. Dural lymphatics: Benveniste et al (2019) described lymphatic vesels along the venous sinuses (e.g. superior sagittal sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus) and middle meningeal artery. CSF runs in the subarachnoid spaces. Dilations in this space (subarachnoid cisterns) are filled with CSF. The subarachnoid cisterns directly associated with the dural sinuses, for example quadrigeminal cistern with the great cerebral vein, could give access to sinus-associated lymphatic vessles (Simon & Iliff 2016).

    3. Lymphatic vessels around the perineural spaces of the cranial nerves I, II, V, VIII (acoustic), X, XII (Koh et al 2005). The cranial nerves pass through the subarachnoid space and subarachnoid cisterns being bathed in CSF. The olfactory nerve (CNI) exits the skull via the cribriform plate into the nasal mucosa draining into the deep cervical lymph nodes. Although the eye doesn’t contain any lymphatics Hasuo and colleagues proposed CSF drainage from the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve through arachnoid granulations into the orbital connective tissue from which lymphatics were believed to transfer the fluid to the cervical lymph nodes.

    4. Engelhardt et al (2016) identified lymphatic drainage along spinal nerve roots.

     As well as the lymphatic system CSF is also absorbed from capillaries (Miyajima & Arai 2015):

    • Parenchymal (cerebral) capillaries: absorbs CSF from the cerebral ventricular walls into the brain parenchyma.
    • Spinal canal capillaries: absorbs CSF into the subarachnoid space. Arachnoid granulations have been shown to exist in the spinal subarachnoid space.

    g-lymphatic system

    The g-lymphatic system both integrates and adds a new component to this model. Coming into play after the CSF has left the ventricles to enter the subarachnoid spaces:

    Movement of the CSF from the subarachnoid spaces --> periarterial spaces

    Benveniste et al (2019) identified CSF being driven from the subarachnoid space to the periarterial spaces. This was driven from pressure gradients derived from arterial pulsations (bulk flow).

    Movement of CSF from the periarterial spaces --> interstitial fluid spaces

    CSF is propelled from the periarterial compartments into the interstitial fluid spaces. The interstitial spaces is the space between the neural cells and capillaries and is filled with interstitial fluid. This fluid facilitates communication between the nerves in the brain.

    This movement of CSF from the periarterial spaces to the interstitial fluid spaces is facilitated by aquaporin 4 (AQP4). These are water channels on the perivascular endfeet of astrocytes (O'Donnell et al 2015). Brinker et al (2014) found AQP4 allowed for a continuous to and fro flow of bi-directional fluid exchange.

    In the interstitial fluid spaces the CSF and ISF mix 

    Movement of CSF-ISF mix from the interstitial fluid spaces --> perivenous spaces

    CSF-ISF fluid mixed with interstitial waste solutes is subsequently transported towards the perivenous spaces of the larger central veins. 

    Movement of CSF-ISF from the perivenous spaces --> subarachnoid spaces:

    Once transported along the perivenous spaces the CSF-ISF mix drains into the subarachnoid spaces (and cisterns).

    Therefore there is a continuous space from the brain parenchyma along the perivascular pathways to the subarachnoid spaces.

    Movement of CSF-ISF from the subarachnoid spaces --> lymphatics

    Once in the subarachnoid spaces the CSF-ISF mix drains into the lymphatic circulation as identified previously. However there is another potential route of spread into the lymphatics of the dural sinuses.

    Simon & Iliff (2015) found the drainage of interstitial solutes along perivenous routes conceivably provides direct access to the most distal segments of these sinus-associated lymphatic structures. For example, the internal cerebral veins merge to form the Great Vein of Galen, which in turn joins the inferior sagittal sinus to form the straight sinus. Therefore could the perivenous flow through the internal cerebral vein eventually give access to the lymphatic vessels of the inferior sagittal and straight sinus?

    Movement of the g-lymphatic system

    Lee et al (2015) experimented on rats and mice to identify the different influences on the movement of the g-lymphatic system. Some of the mechanical influences may differ for humans due to the dimensional differences. These authors found the movement of the g-lymphatic system to be dependent upon:

    • Sleep. During sleep the brain's interstitial space volume expands by 60% (Xie etal 2013). This expansion lowers the overall resistance to periarterial inflow of CSF into the brain parenchyma. Inturn this increases CSF-ISF exchange and drainage along perivenous spaces and ultimately the lymphatic vessels.
    • Body position. The most effective positions for encouraging the g-lymphatic system is first of all lying in a right lateral position, then supine and lastly prone.

    This could give an evolutionary explanation as to why the most popular sleep posture is in a lateral position as it optimizes waste removal during sleep.

    • Arterial pulsatility. Arterial pulsatility drives g-lymphatic influx. Greitz et al (1992) also found an influx of arterial blood leads to an outflow of CSF.

    • Movement of the brain. In systole the arteries expand. This expansion creates a piston like effect squashing the CSF out of the brain and into the spinal cord (Greitz et al 1992). This venting of CSF into the spinal cord during systole may explain the funnel-shaped movement of the brain as if it were being pulled down by the spinal cord (Greitz et al 1992).

    • Forced inspiration. Forced inspiration leads to an increase venous flow out of the head and an increase CSF flow into the head. This upward movement of CSF on inspiration was noted from the middle thoracic spine all the way up to aqueduct in the ventricular system (Kulaczewski et al 2017).

    • Increased intracranial pressure decreases CSF production (Miyajima and Arai 2015).

    • Body position (CSF influx): there is a reduced CSF influx into the brain in the prone position. But conversley an increase influx into the spinal cord.

    • Body position (CSF efflux): Lee et al (2015) tested the effect of body position on CSF efflux pathways of CNVIII (auditory nerve–cochlea complex), CNX (point of exit of the vagus), superior sagittal sinus and the periarterial space along the internal carotid arteries.  

    The vagus nerve is the most prominent CSF efflux pathway compared with the other routes.

    The only route affected by body position was along the internal carotid artery. Here efflux was more pronounced in rats when in a prone position compared with a right lateral position.

    Reciprocal movement of CSF into the brain and spinal cord

    There seems to be a reciprocal relationship with CSF flow into the brain and spinal cord. This reciprocal relationship seems to be dependent on posture, arterial pulsations and respiration. 

    Body posture

    Lee et al (2015) found being in the prone position reduces influx of CSF into the head, slows the influx of CSF in the g-lymphatic system and increases an efflux of CSF along the internal carotid artery pathway. In contrast being prone increases CSF flow to the spinal cord.

    Arterial pulsations

    In systole the arteries expand. Greitz et al (1992) found this expansion created a piston like effect squashing the CSF out of the brain and into the spinal cord. These authors attributed this venting of CSF into the spinal cord to creating the funnel-shaped movement of the brain as if it were being pulled down by the spinal cord.

    Respiration

    Forced inspiration leads to an increase venous flow out of the head and an increase CSF flow into the head. This upward movement of CSF on inspiration was noted from the middle thoracic spine all the way up to aqueduct in the ventricular system (Kulaczewski et al 2017).

    Neurological and physiological influences on g-lymphatic transport

    Lee et al (2015) asked why does g-lymphatic transport improve when placing anesthetized rats in the right lateral position and get worse when prone.

    They concluded the answer is likely a function of complex physiological adjustments to different head and body positions including the stretch placed on the nerves and vessels. 

    When prone the slight thoracic compression of venous return volume decreases stroke volume, with little impact on the heart rate. In other words less coming in the heart = less coming out the heart. This reduction in stroke volume will reduce arterial pulsatility, which is an important driver of g-lymphatic influx.

    Also it would be expected that overall sympathetic tone in the prone position would be higher as a natural response to the decrease in cardiac stroke volume from compression of venous return.

    Conversely sympathetic tone lowers when lying in the right rather than in the left lateral position. This possibly explains why the g-lymphatic system is most effective when lying in the right lateral position by expanding the interstitial space volume.

    The effect of norepinephrine in inhibiting g-lymphatic influx is though to be because norepinephrine triggers rapid changes in neural activity which can reduce interstitial space volume (Xie et al 2013). This constriction increases the overall resistance to the periarterial inflow of CSF into the brain parenchyma.

    Not only does lowering sympathetic tone increase the efficiency of the g-lymphatic system but so does stimulating the vagus nerve (Cheng et al 2019).

    Whilst acknowledging the limitations of their research these authors proposed the effects of vagal nerve stimulation maybe partially or completely independent of systemic cardio and respiratory responses and more dependent upon (1) regionalized brain reflexes. For example the synaptic connections of the vagus nerve to the facial nerve which inturn innervates the cerebral artery. (2) Altering the neurotransmitter and metabolite content of CSF which could possibly interact with the astrocytic endfeet lining the paravascular spaces. 

    Lee et al (2015) thought the effect of body position may also effect systemic lymphatic circulation via the effects on the autonomic nervous system. They attributed the prone position to increasing sympathetic tone to the lymphatic vessels which would slow g-lymphatic transport. Conversely right sidelying reduces sympathetic tone concomitantly with an increase in vagal tone which speeds up g-lymphatic transport. However Le & Sloan (2016) found norepinephrine significantly increased lymph flow. 

    One other possible reason for the advantage of the right lateral position is that the heart is positioned higher when lying on the right side.

    This slight elevation of the heart facilitates the pumping of blood and with greater venous return may increase cardiac stroke volume; also, the sympathetic tone is reduced, possibly improving g-lymphatic influx.

    References

    The glymphatic system and waste clearance with brain aging (2019). Helene Benveniste, Xiaodan Liu, Sunil Koundal, Simon Sanggaard, Hedok Lee, and Joanna Wardlaw

    The Effect of Body Posture on Brain Glymphatic Transport (2015). Hedok Lee, Lulu Xie, Mei Yu, Hongyi Kang, Tian Feng, Rashid Deane, Jean Logan, Maiken Nedergaard, and Helene Benveniste

    Regulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in neurodegenerative, neurovascular and neuroinflammatory disease (2016). Matthew J. Simon and Jeffrey J. Iliff

    Stress-driven lymphatic dissemination: An unanticipated consequence of communication between the sympathetic nervous system and lymphatic vasculature (2016). Caroline P. Le and Erica K. Sloan

    Recent insights into a new hydrodynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid (2011). Bulat MKlarica M.

    Distinct functional states of astrocytes during sleep and wakefulness: Is norepinephrine the master regulator? (2015). John O’Donnell, Fengfei Ding, and Maiken Nedergaard

    Sleep drives metabolite clearance from the adult brain (2013). Xie LKang HXu QChen MJLiao YThiyagarajan MO'Donnell JChristensen DJNicholson CIliff JJTakano TDeane RNedergaard M.

    Pulsatile brain movement and associated hydrodynamics studied by magnetic resonance phase imaging. The Monro-Kellie doctrine revisited. (1992). Greitz D, Wirestam R, Franck A, Nordell B, Thomsen C, Ståhlberg F.

    Identification of the Upward Movement of Human CSF In Vivo and its Relation to the Brain Venous System (2017). Steffi Dreha-KulaczewskiArun A. JosephKlaus-Dietmar MerboldtHans-Christoph LudwigJutta Gärtner and Jens Frahm

    Evaluation of the Production and Absorption of Cerebrospinal Fluid (2015). Masakazu MIYAJIMA and Hajime ARAI

    The brain interstitial system: Anatomy, modeling, in vivo measurement, and applications (2017). YimingLei Hongbin Han Fan Yuan Aqeel Javeed Yong Zhao

    Dural lymphatic vasculature in human superior saggital sinus: the brain drain (2017). N. Visanji, A. Lang, D. Munoz

    Cranial arachnoid protrusions and contiguous diploic veins in CSF drainage (2014). Tsutsumi SOgino IMiyajima MNakamura MYasumoto YArai HIto M.

    Is Vagus Nerve Stimulation Brain Washing? (2019) Kevin P. Cheng, Sarah K. Brodnick, Stephan L. Blanz , Weifeng Zeng , Jack Kegel , Jane A. Pisaniello , Jared P. Ness , Erika Ross , Evan N. Nicolai, Megan L. Settell, James K. Trevathan, Samuel O. Poore, Aaron J. Suminski, Justin C. Williams, Kip A. Ludwig

  2. From inside to out: the nerves that pierce the skull

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    Introduction

    Upper cervical headaches can have, in part, a distrtibution that shares a trigeminal nerve pain pattern. Chou and Lenrow (2002) identified C2 and C3 headache pain patterns as:

    • C2 dynatome (pain): pain ascending, 6-8 cm wide, paramedially from the subocciput to the vertex.
    • C3 dynatome: pain in the upper neck (<anterolateral), ear (<pinna), lateral cheek and angle of the jaw.

    Typically extracranial sources of trigeminal mediated pain are thought to be from a reflex involving several nerves that eventually involve a direct branch of the trigeminal nerve. For example an upper cervical nerve causing a neurological reflex via the spinal trigeminal nucleus.

    This end-stage physiological 'irritation' of the trigeminal nerve is in contrast to a direct mechanical compression that is usually associated with more pathological space occupying lesions.

    More recently Schueler et al (2013 & 2014) found branches from the trigeminal nerve that innervate the dura mater and regulate bloodflow intracranially can be compressed by extracranial  soft tissues. These nerves run a course originating intracranially to then traverse the cranium via the sutures and emissary canals to terminate extracranially. Extracranially these nerves innervate the connective tissue of the temporomandibular joint, periosteum and cervical muscles.

    This gives the potential for soft tissues of the head and neck to not only initiate a physiological reflex response but to exert a direct compression on the trigeminal nerve.

    Blake & Burnstein (2019) attributed these nerves to giving occipital pain that can radiate frontally to trigeminal innervated areas.

    Innervation of the dura

    Dura of the posterior cranial fossa

    The dura mater covering the posterior cranial fossa is innervated by the recurrent meningeal branches of the:

    • Vagus nerve.
    • Facial nerve.
    • Glossopharyngeal nerve (Lee et al 2017).
    • Hypoglossal nerve (Lv et al 2014)
    • Sphenopalatine ganglion (Lv et al 2014).
    • Upper three cervical nerves (Lee et al 2017).
    • C2-3 dorsal root ganglion: Noseda et al (2019) found, in rats, neurones in the C2-3 dorsal root ganglia innervated the dura of the posterior cranial fossa.

    Dura of the middle cranial fossa

    The dura mater of the middle cranial fossa is innervated by all three branches of the trigeminal nerve:

    • Opthalamic (V1): innervates the dura the full length of the middle cranial fossa. Posterior projections of this nerve (nervus tentorii) innervates the entire region of the tentorium cerebelli and the posterior part of the falx cerebri. Anterior projections of the recurrent meningeal branches of the opthalamic nerve innervate the dura in the anterior cranial fossa (Lee et al 2017).
    • Maxillary (V2): recurrent meningeal branches run parallel to the proximal part of the middle meningeal artery in the dura mater innervating the dura the full length of the middle cranial fossa (Lee et al 2017).
    • Mandibular (V3): recurrent meningeal branches run parallel to the proximal part of the middle meningeal artery in the dura mater innervates the dura in the posterior part of the middle cranial fossa (Lee et al 2017).

    Dura of the anterior cranial fossa  

    The dura of the anterior cranial fossa is innervated by the trigeminal nerve:

    • Opthalamic (V1).
    • Maxillary (V2).

    Extracranial projections of the dural innervation 

    Upper cervical nerves and C2-3 dorsal root ganglion

    There is a shared extracranial-intracranial innervation in the posterior cranial fossa involving the upper three cervical nerves and C2-3 dorsal root ganglion. 

    Schueler et al (2014) found in the nuchal region the trigeminal innervation territory to overlap considerably with that of the occipital nerves. The innervation of these pericranial muscles by collaterals of meningeal afferent fibers is substantial.

    For this reason Noseda et al (2019) proposed, not only can activation of extracranial muscle nociceptors cause headaches via their intracranial branches innervating the dura but also, in reverse, activation of intracranial dural nociceptors can give rise to extracranial muscle tenderness/pain.

    Recurrent meningeal branch of the trigeminal nerve (V3): spinosus nerve 

    The nerve that runs intracranially from the dura in the middle cranial fossa to extracranially in the periosteum and soft tissues is the spinosus nerve.

    This nerve originates from: trigeminal mandibular branch (V3) --> spinosus nerve (meningeal branch). It innervates the dura in the middle cranial fossa.

    Schueler et al (2014) identified this nerve as splitting into bundles. These bundles run within the dura mater along the middle meningeal artery. 10-20% of these bundles penetrate the skull through the sutures and along the emissary veins.

    These authors found the nerve leaves the skull around the petrosquamos fissure to reside around the squamous suture. These bundles of nerves not only innervate the periosteum but also the insertion of the temporalis muscle.

    Nerves fibers, unspecified as part of the spinosus nerve, in the posterior part of the cranial cavity also penetrate the petrosquamous fissure.

    Schueler et al (2014) hypothesised two clinical points to the spinosus nerve:

    • This nerve has Aβ‐fibers. These fibers normally have mechanoreceptive functions. Could these nerve fibers be activated by mechanical stimuli such as sudden head movements?
    • These authors also hypothesised that nerve fibers running with or parallel to the spinosus nerve may have a sympathetic or parasympathetic origin that can contribute to vascular functions. Scheuler et al (2013) found noxious stimulation of the pericranial muscles (including the temporalis where fibers from the spinosus nerve terminate extracranially) causes release of CGRP intracranially. This resulted in elevated meningeal blood flow. Vasodilation of the middle meningeal artery and neurogenic inflammation of the recurrent meningeal branches from the maxillary and mandibular divisions of the trigeminal nerve in the skull base have been suggested as causes of vascular headache (Lee et al 2017).

    Unspecified nerves in the anterior and posterior cranial fossa

    Schueler et al (2014) found extracranial projectons from other meningeal nerves that innervate the dura mater of the anterior and posterior cranial fossae.

    Nerves fibers of unspecified origin in the posterior part of the cranial fossae penetrate the petrosquamous fissure. This is along side nerve fibers from the spinosus nerve that penetrate the petrosquamous fissure having innervated the dura in the middle cranial fossa.

    Embryology of the dura, cranial sutures and brain

    Embryology of the dura and cranial sutures

    Reviewing the intimate embryological developmental relationship of the cranial sutures and dura can throw potential light on the origin of these nerves.

    Zhao and Levy (2014) postulated that these intrarcranial trigeminal afferents that cross the calvaria through the sutures and innervate the periosteum are important to the process of cranial suture closure during the early stages of cranial development. 

    Embryological relation of the sutures and the dura

    Jin et al (2016) found a small line of the neural crest is derived from mesenchyme that remains between the two parietal bones and contributes to the signalling system that governs growth of the cranial vault at the sutures and to the development of the underlying meninges.

    The mesoderm and neural crest cells don’t just form the bones of the skull but also the meningeal mesenchyme that forms all three layers of the meninges.

    It does this while the sutures are developing. The growing and expanding bone fronts both invade and recruit the intervening mesenchymal tissue into the advancing edges of the bone fronts. By this action the intervening bones separate the mesenchyme into an outer ectoperiosteal layer (to become the skull) and an inner dura mater.

    The outer layer of the dura forms the inner periosteum of the skull and the inner dura layer forms the dural folds (falx and tentorium).

    The dura mater also expresses osteogenic growth factors that may be required for ossification of cranial vault bones.

    The dura covers the brain. This dural covering has reflections acting as partitions of the cranial cavity under the calvarium, adopting a course that follows the main direction of the sutures. The folds are the falx and tentorium.

    They firmly attach to the skull base at the crista galli, the cribriform plate, the lesser wings of the sphenoid and the petrous temporal crests.

    The dura mater in conjunction with the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli, come to define the zones where bone growth slows down and the coronal, lambdoid, and sagittal sutures develop.

    Oppermann (2000) found the dura mater was not only crucial in keeping the suture a flexible fibrous joint preventing them from being obliterated by bone but it was needed to stabilise the suture. It's not until the third decade of life that the cranial vault sutures ossify and until the seventh or eighth decade of life for the facial complex.

    Jin et al (2016) found these dural bands are essential in determining the shape of the brain as without them it would expand into a perfect sphere.

    The expanding brain, sending signals by means of the dura mater makes the cranium grow and expand by means of expanding the cartilaginous growth plates in the cranial base and making the sutures add more bone at their periphery in the cranial vault. Gagan et al (2007) found the cells of the dura mater not only have profound influence on cell migration and differentiation in the infant skull but also the brain.

    Therefore the growing brain does not actually push the bones outward. Rather, each flat bone is suspended, with the existent traction forces, within a widespread sling of the collagenous fibers of the enlarging inner (meningeal) and outter (cutaneous) periosteal layers. As these membranes grow in an ectocranial direction ahead of the expanding brain, the bones are displaced with them. This draws all of them apart, and the tensile physiological forces thus created are believed to be the stimulus that triggers the bone producing response.

    Embryology of the dura and brain

    These mechanical and biochemical factors aren't just related to the development of the skull but also the brain. The cells of the dura mater have a dynamic reciprocal influence on cell migration and differentiation in multiple regions of the embryonic and infant brain and skull (Gagan et al 2007)

    Innervation of the intracranial vasculature

    UNDER CONSTRUCTION

    Shimizu and Suzuki (2010):

    Superior sagittal sinus: ethmoidal nerve (anterior)  and tentorial nerve (posterior).

    Inferior sagittal sinus: probably tentorial nerve.

    Transverse sinus and straight sinus: tentorial nerve.

    Superior petrosal sinus: tentorial nerve and V3 and fibers from the trigeminal ganglion.

    Vein of Galen: tentorial nerve.

    The trigeminal nerve supplies the cranial dura mater. Two separate trigeminal nociceptive systems in the cranial dura mater have been distinguished (Lee et al 2017):

    • V1: Posterior projections of the recurrent meningeal branches of the ophthalmic nerve (nervus tentorii) innervates the distal middle meningeal artery on the lateral convexity. The most densely innervated areas are the transverse sinus and the posterior half of the straight sinus.  

    References 

    Cervicogenic Headache (2002) Larry H. Chou and David A. Lenrow

    Visualization of the tentorial innervation of human dura mater (2017). Shin‐Hyo Lee, Kang‐Jae Shin, Ki‐Seok Koh, Wu‐Chul Song

    Non-Trigeminal Nociceptive Innervation of the Posterior Dura: Implications to Occipital Headache (2019). Rodrigo Noseda, Agustin Melo-Carrillo, Rony-Reuven Nir, Andrew M. Strassman and Rami Burstein

    Extracranial projections of meningeal afferents and their impact on meningeal nociception and headache (2013). Schueler M, Messlinger KDux MNeuhuber WLDe Col R.

    Emerging evidence of occipital nerve compression in unremitting head and neck pain (2019). Pamela Blake & Rami Burstein 

    THE EMISSARY FORAMINA OF THE CRANIUM IN MAN AND THE ANTHROPOIDS (1930) BY G. I. BOYD

    Innervation of Rat and Human Dura Mater and Pericranial Tissues in the Parieto‐Temporal Region by Meningeal Afferents (2014). Markus Schueler, Winfried L. Neuhuber, Roberto De Col, Karl Messlinger

    The trigemino-cardiac reflex: an update of the current knowledge (2009). Schaller BCornelius JFPrabhakar HKoerbel AGnanalingham KSandu NOttaviani GFilis ABuchfelder M

    The sensory innervation of the calvarial periosteum is nociceptive and contributes to headache-like behaviour (2014). Jun Zhao and Dan Levy

    Development and Growth of the Normal Cranial Vault : An Embryologic Review (2016). Sung-Won Jin, Ki-Bum Sim, and Sang-Dae Kim

    Cranial sutures as intramembranous bone growth sites (2000). Lynne A. Opperman

    Cellular dynamics and tissue interactions of the dura mater during head development (2007). Jeffrey R. Gagan, Sunil S. Tholpady, Roy C. Ogle

    Innervation of the Cerebral Dura Mater (2014). Xianli LvZhongxue Wu, and Youxiang Li

    Headache (2010). Toshihiko Shimizu & Norihiro Suzuki